14 Abr

Le compresseur scroll et le compresseur à pistons

D’une manière générale, un compresseur est un organe mécanique destiné à augmenter la pression d’un gaz, et donc son énergie.

Schéma_de_principe_d'un_compresseur.svg

FONCTIONNEMENT DU COMPRESSEUR SCROLL

Two_moving_spirals_scroll_pump

Plus particulièrement, le compresseur scroll (ou compresseur à spirale) emploie deux spirales intercalées comme des palettes pour pomper et comprimer des fluides. Souvent, une des spires est fixe, alors que l’autre se déplace excentriquement sans tourner, de sorte à pomper puis emprisonner et enfin comprimer des poches de fluide entre les spires comme dessiné ci-dessous.

 

Cycle_de_compression_d'un_compresseur_scroll

FONCTIONNEMENT DU COMPRESSEUR A PISTONS

Dans un tel compresseur, chaque piston présente un mouvement alternatif dans un cylindre. A  l’aller, le piston aspire le fluide à une certaine pression puis le comprime au retour. Pour cela, chaque piston est muni d’une entrée et d’une sortie à clapet anti-retour. Le clapet d’admission laisse passer le gaz uniquement vers la chambre du piston. À l’inverse, le clapet d’échappement ne peut laisser passer le gaz que vers le circuit extérieur. De plus, le clapet d’échappement offre une certaine résistance, de façon à ne s’ouvrir que lorsque la pression de l’intérieur de la chambre du cylindre atteint une valeur suffisante.

Fonctionnement pas à pas :

  • le piston « descend » : la dépression créée à l’intérieur du cylindre entraîne l’ouverture du clapet d’admission et le fluide est aspiré. Le clapet d’échappement est fermé, car il ne marche que dans un sens.
  • le piston commence sa « remontée » : le fluide commence à se comprimer, car il ne peut sortir par le clapet d’admission (clapet anti-retour) et sa pression n’est pas suffisante pour pousser le clapet d’échappement (maintenu en place par un ressort par exemple). Le fluide ne pouvant s’échapper, il se compresse, car la « remontée » du piston diminue le volume dans le cylindre.
  • la pression du fluide atteint la pression voulue (contrôlé par la raideur du ressort) : cette pression est suffisante pour ouvrir le clapet d’échappement et le fluide sous pression s’échappe donc. Le piston finissant sa remontée, il chasse le fluide tout en maintenant sa pression.
  • le clapet d’échappement se ferme lorsque le piston arrive au point mort haut et un nouveau cycle recommence.

 UTILISATIONS DES COMPRESSEURS

Les compresseurs mécaniques sont utilisés dans les transports (automobiles, avions, bateaux à moteur) et dans l’industrie afin de produire de l’air comprimé notamment dans les machines frigorifiques et pompes à chaleur.

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